||[Obtain useful contextual detailed information about the targeted user or organization] An adversary collects useful contextual detailed information about the targeted user or organization in order to craft a more deceptive and enticing message to lure the target into responding.
- Conduct web searching research of target. See also: CAPEC-118.
- Identify trusted associates, colleagues and friends of target. See also: CAPEC-118.
- Utilize social engineering attack patterns such as Pretexting. See also: CAPEC-407.
- Collect social information via dumpster diving. See also: CAPEC-406.
- Collect social information via traditional sources. See also: CAPEC-118.
- Collect social information via Non-traditional sources. See also: CAPEC-118.
||[Optional: Obtain domain name and certificate to spoof legitimate site] This optional step can be used to help the adversary impersonate the legitimate site more convincingly. The adversary can use homograph attacks to convince users that they are using the legitimate website. Note that this step is not required for phishing attacks, and many phishing attacks simply supply URLs containing an IP address and no SSL certificate.
- Optionally obtain a domain name that visually looks similar to the legitimate site's domain name. An example is www.paypaI.com vs. www.paypal.com (the first one contains a capital i, instead of a lower case L).
- Optionally obtain a legitimate SSL certificate for the new domain name.
||[Optional: Explore legitimate website and create duplicate] An adversary creates a website (optionally at a URL that looks similar to the original URL) that closely resembles the website that they are trying to impersonate. That website will typically have a login form for the victim to put in their authentication credentials. There can be different variations on a theme here.
- Use spidering software to get copy of web pages on legitimate site.
- Manually save copies of required web pages from legitimate site.
- Create new web pages that have the legitimate site's look at feel, but contain completely new content.
||[Optional: Build variants of the website with very specific user information e.g., living area, etc.] Once the adversary has their website which duplicates a legitimate website, they need to build very custom user related information in it. For example, they could create multiple variants of the website which would target different living area users by providing information such as local news, local weather, etc. so that the user believes this is a new feature from the website.
- Integrate localized information in the web pages created to duplicate the original website. Those localized information could be dynamically generated based on unique key or IP address of the future victim.
||[Convince user to enter sensitive information on adversary's site.] An adversary sends a message (typically an e-mail) to the victim that has some sort of a call to action to get the user to click on the link included in the e-mail (which takes the victim to adversary's website) and log in. The key is to get the victim to believe that the message is coming from a legitimate entity trusted by the victim or with which the victim or does business and that the website pointed to by the URL in the e-mail is the legitimate website. A call to action will usually need to sound legitimate and urgent enough to prompt action from the user.
- Send the user a message from a spoofed legitimate-looking e-mail address that asks the user to click on the included link.
- Place phishing link in post to online forum.
||[Use stolen credentials to log into legitimate site] Once the adversary captures some sensitive information through phishing (login credentials, credit card information, etc.) the adversary can leverage this information. For instance, the adversary can use the victim's login credentials to log into their bank account and transfer money to an account of their choice.
- Log in to the legitimate site using another user's supplied credentials.